News And Features; Leaders
Ruddock's Way: The Good And Bad

Sydney Morning Herald
Copyright of John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd

The disappointment in the generally sensible migration program for 2002-03, announced by the Immigration Minister, Philip Ruddock, is the lack of any increase in the humanitarian category. Places for skilled and family migrants will be increased by about 12,000, but the intake of refugees and other special needy cases will remain, as it has since 1996, at 12,000, plus any unused places left over from this year's program. Given the urgency of the global problem, a modest increase of a few thousand would have been a powerful symbol to counter international criticism of Australia as a result of the Tampa and the so-called Pacific solution.

Mr Ruddock would argue that even a token increase in humanitarian places might encourage boat smugglers. The halt in illegal arrivals over the past six months, of which the minister boasts, makes this unconvincing. If anything will encourage people smugglers to try their luck again it will be his acknowledgement that some of the meagre 4000 places being reserved for off-shore refugees will go to their former clients in Indonesia or in processing camps on Nauru and Manus, and Christmas Island.

Mr Ruddock admits this will reduce the places available for those who he says are his priority ``refugees living in countries of first asylum who cannot go home and who are unable to remain where they are''. The rest of next year's 12,000 humanitarian places will be shared between about 6000 ``special'' cases people in refugee-like situations with links to Australia who have suffered human rights abuses and successful on-shore applicants. Overall, the Government's refusal to increase the humanitarian intake will further limit the already faint prospects of the most needy and vulnerable refugees, those waiting far away in patient desperation for a gate at which to queue.

That said, the decisions to boost the intake of skilled migrants from 53,500 this financial year to 60,700 next year, and that of family migrants by more than 5000 to 43,200, are welcome. So is the undertaking, barring exceptional circumstances, to maintain the new annual target of about 105,000 for four years. The potentially good news for Sydney is that the Government is considering new measures to encourage skilled migrants to settle in states and regions where they are needed, rather than in already stretched Sydney suburbs.

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.





News And Features; Letters
The Fundamental Flaw In Ruddock's Immigration Plan

Sydney Morning Herald
Copyright of John Fairfax Group Pty Ltd

Philip Ruddock's plan to increase skilled immigration to fill teaching and nursing places is fundamentally flawed by the fact that Australia does not recognise overseas qualifications in these areas.

I have met a large number of immigrants who were qualified doctors in their homeland, who are now taxi drivers, cleaners or basic office workers as a result of this practice. The truth is that migrants of any skill level are prepared to take on those jobs that Australia's dole-dependent are not prepared to do.

Migrants come to this country and actively contribute to the economy on a number of levels and are driven to overcome adversity and succeed.

I think Mr Ruddock needs to reconsider this plan, which appears to be just another example of his grandstanding techniques to try to appease the public. Unfortunately, it lacks substance.

Kevin Pyle, Potts Point, May 8.


The Minister for Immigration, Philip Ruddock, in substantially lifting immigration, appears to have succumbed to pressure from the business lobby for the sake of short-term economic gain. More people, more demand, more profits. No wonder the Housing Industry Association was pleased. More people, more houses to build.

Mr Ruddock says we will have 27 million by 2050. Terrific. Keep this up and soon we will have paved over all natural habitats left on the east coast, driving the koala, wombat and numerous birds to extinction. Yet already almost all of our environmental indicators biodiversity, freshwater, etc are in decline.

Housing prices, through the roof in our major cities, will be even further out of reach of ordinary people. Rental prices will rise, lifting the homeless rate from its already unconscionable level of 105,000.

The increase in immigration may have been almost justified had it been to the humanitarian stream instead of skills and family reunion. But no, selfishness and greed prevail, along with the environmental vandalism inherent in adding another 7.5 million people by mid-century.

Jenny Goldie, National director, Sustainable Population Australia, Civic Square (ACT), May 8.


More skilled immigration to the West is the last thing the world needs. As developing countries struggle to progress against poverty, debt and disease, their skilled elites are leaving in droves. Why stay and help your faded country to its feet when the other half will have you? The question of where their skills are more in need becomes irrelevant.

In developing countries, education is rooted much more deeply in class than it is here. Those that are skilled enough to be accepted by us are usually extremely privileged.

There are, of course, exceptions, but for the most part we take on the pampered and ignore the impoverished. I cringe while I write it, but this seems pretty un-Australian to me.

Why not increase our humanitarian intake instead? Leave the skilled where they're needed and take on those in need. We know it works we have over 50 years of success stories.

Markus Mannheim, Colonel Light Gardens (SA), May 8


In an act of national environmental vandalism, Philip Ruddock, is locking Australia into a four-year period of historically high immigration levels a resounding slap in the face for the Premier, Bob Carr, and Sydney residents who are fighting urban consolidation.

According to Mr Ruddock, ``with a net migration gain of 100,000 a year, Australia's population could reach 27 million by 2050''. But last year's net migration gain was 107,900 and his new intake will deliver 137,000.

Only last year, Mr Ruddock told the Sydney's Population Future forum that Australia's population would reach 24 million and be stable by 2050, with Sydney's population 6million.

And only four months earlier, Mr Ruddock told a Canberra seminar ``the Australian Bureau of Statistics projects that 75 per cent of all population growth will occur in the major cities. This has prompted some to argue that the upper bounds of population growth in Australia will be linked to the capacity of these cities to absorb more people and our ability to manage and reshape them''.

Sydney is not managing. Do the sums. Imagine Sydney with 7 million residents. Weep for Sydney!

Gordon Hocking, Oyster Bay, May 8.

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Immigrants' children generate more success.


Sydney Morning Herald P3

Original Article By Nick O'Malley.


A study on the long-term effects of immigration in Australia confirms children of immigrants have a high educational success rate. Researchers say that second-generation children of post-war immigrants to Australia, particularly from Asia, and eastern and southern Europe, perform better in both education and employment than those with Australian parents. Among the findings are that second-generation children of immigrants are proficient in English by age ten and attain higher incomes. Reasons may include higher motivation levels to succeed. Good and bad cahnges in migration.
(c) 2002 The Canberra Times


THE FEDERAL Government should have been more cautious in its change to immigration policy. It has decided to increase the intake by 12,000 to above the 100,000 mark for each of the next four years. The emphasis is to be on skilled immigration. Indeed, the program for people applying for permanent residency from within Australia as refugees has been cut from 5600 to 2000, though the humanitarian program overall will continue with the 12,000 places of each of the past five years. The increase in the skilled program means that Australia's population is forecast to be 27 million in 2050 instead of 25 million. Given the state of things, such as salinity, land-clearing, endangered species and the like, the wisdom of the increase must be questioned. Moreover, as NSW Premier Bob Carr never tires of pointing out, the major burden of immigration is borne by Sydney, a city whose infrastructure is straining under population growth. Traffic problems, housing shortages and impossible prices, and public-transport stress suggest that increasing Sydney's population will result in a poorer, not better, standard of living. The Government projections about increased immigration leading to higher standards of living have to be taken with (almost literally) a grain of salt. The projections are monetary only and emphasise benefits.

 Loss of environmental amenity is hardly considered. It is difficult to see how an immigration program in a democracy that believes in equality before the law can prevent people from taking up residence in Sydney, and thus putting further unneeded pressure on that city. True, the Government has announced some welcome measures to get a more even distribution of the migrant intake. It has raised the points required by migrants to get a visa to 115 and then lowered them back to 110 for those who wish to settle outside Sydney and have appropriate business and/or local-or state-government sponsorship from a region outside Sydney. But there will be nothing to stop migrants from ultimately going to Sydney. And that is where many will want to go because previous waves of migrants have  gone there so there will be family and national ties there. Overall, there was simply no need to increase the intake. Migration, except at a massive and socially unsustainable level will not appreciably affect the age structure of society. And in any event the ageing of society is an overstated problem the costs of the young outweigh the costs of age as many increasingly aged but increasing affluent European societies are finding. The Government seems to have pandered to business interests, particularly the housing industry. The previous intake was about right. It was to a high degree satisfying economic, family and humanitarian requirements and would have enabled Australia to ensure environmental sustainability more easily. That said, the Howard Government has been far more sensible on immigration than the Hawke-Keating Governments. Within a short time of coming to office in 1996, it changed the immigration mix so that skilled migrants would outnumber family-reunion migrants. That has no doubt helped the dependency ratio and the government bottom line. Immigration peaked in 1986-87 at 125,000, nearly 80,000 of  which were family-reunion. Much of that was vote-catching, rather than nation-building.  Australia already does enough on the humanitarian front, with the highest per-capita  intake of any nation on Earth. At least with the increases announced this week the  projections are for an increasing proportion of skills intake. The other welcome part of this announcement is a requirement that business migrants are to have conditional visas which become permanent only after the establishment of a business. The previous unconditional scheme was open to abuse.

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All rights reserved.


Populate or stagnate.


BRW (ABIX abstracts)


(c) Copyright 2002 Business Intelligence International Pty Limited, My Money Group

Original Article By Nicholas Way.


The business sector is extremely keen for a population policy but the Australian Prime Minister, John Howard, does not see the need. The Australian business sector realises that a population policy would have to incorporate economic aspects, political aspects and social aspects. The Business Council of Australia believes that a goal of achieving a population of 30 million by 2050 is feasible and is a time-frame which sits more comfortably with Australians than a more aggressive policy of immigration. The executive chairman of Visy Industries, Richard Pratt, believes that thinking Australia only requires a low level of immigration is a naive attitude. Pratt and other businessmen want to see the Australian Government adopt an expansionist population strategy incorporating more migrants.


(c) 2002 Business Intelligence International Pty Ltd, My Money Group

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Balanced insight into migration.


Canberra Times P15

(c) 2002 The Canberra Times


English lessons in the pool on the MV Skaugum.


IN 1945 Australia's population was 7 million. In the next 50 years, some 5.7 million migrants came to ourshores. The result now is that almost a quarter of all Australians were born overseas, and over a quarterof the workforce are migrants. This book concentrates on migration to Western Australia, but hasmplications for all Australians. Based largely on personal interviews, it tells a varied and moving story ofmigrant experiences since World War II - with all their anxiety, prejudice, disillusion, improvisation,perseverance and, in many cases, real and lasting success. There are six chapters. In the first we learnwhy Australia wanted immigrants (Arthur Calwell, the first Minister for Immigration, needed settlers both o 'populate or perish' and for economic growth). Then, in 'A New Future' comes the story of displaced persons and other migrants (why they left Europe, and why they chose Australia). Chapter 3 deals with selection, transportation and arrival - and how so often displaced people and other non-English speakers received inferior treatment to British migrants. Next is a section on accommodation for the new arrivals, with the telling title 'Definitely not the Ritz'. The fifth part discusses employment, the two-year contract for displaced people and the way many migrants worked for years below their talent and overseas qualifications. Lastly, settling down in the new country, becoming 'Australianised', feeling welcome (how many still bear the scars of 'Reffos, Wogs, Spags, Kikes and Yids'?), buying a house, returning home (for a visit, or to stay), attaining Australian citizenship (commitment and conflicts of identity), and reflecting on the 'immigration undertaking' (was it all worth it?). A review in 1973 showed almost a fifth of settlers from Britain and Western Europe since 1947 had left. For many migrants there was a huge gap between expectations and reality. Those who stayed sometimes spoke of things like 'an existence between two worlds', and 'the ultimate humiliation of having to dissolve their national identity, culture and pride and language into a foreign one'. But the picture was not all bleak. This book shows a wide variety of reactions, from dismay at conditions in WA migrant camps (the heat, the mossies, queuing six times a day for meals, the isolation and lack of extended family), to children who delighted in exploring the bush and tree-climbing, and adults who loved the freedom and open spaces of Australia. And there are lighter moments throughout: displaced people on one ship were awakened at 6am by the cracking of whips and the donkey from Donkey Serenade; one migrant, set to work painting the vessel on route, later admitted this meant that the paint was sometimes mixed with vomit; another migrant generally managed to eat his daily stew except once when he found the meal crowned by a set of false teeth. The author brings her own family into the story. The Peters emigrated from Holland to WA in 1949. Her parents built their own house with home-made cement bricks. Her brother Eddie's versatility in employment was remarkable; so was Peters' career, taking her matric at mature-age after marriage, enrolling part-time at the University of WA, and recently completing her PhD on migrant enterprise in WA. Peters' book showshow many migrants, or their children, have succeeded in various fields, but especially business. No gold in the streets - but, despite all the setbacks, a land of opportunity for most. Australians too have benefited, in ways ranging from new food to over 100 new languages to ethnic media. Also, an acceptance of foreigners: there seems little doubt that the thousands of displaced people and other migrants from Europe paved the way for the removal of the White Australia Policy in 1972. This is a detailed and balanced account. Though scholarly, it reads like general non-fiction. The book is well illustrated with black-and-white photos. Of interest to all migrants, it is also for anybody who has known one or simply wants to learn what migration is really like.

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Populate or perish.


The Bulletin (ABIX abstracts) P22

(c) Copyright 2002 Business Intelligence International Pty Limited, My Money Group

Original Article By David Leser.


The Australian Population Policy Summit in Melbourne in February 2002 examined issues concerning Australia's future. Increased migration to Australia, refugee policy and the treatment of illegal aliens were discussed as part of an examination of the future social and economic position of the nation.Some economists argue that a population of 50 million is needed, while Sydney and Melbourne appear to be the only cities with potential to become global cities. Instead of relying on a frequently adjusted immigration policy, the Australian Government should use a population policy to assist building for futureneeds. Politicians, trade union leaders and social commentators agree that population is a key issue, involving factors such as national fertility, environmental stress and humanitarian issues.

(c) 2002 Business Intelligence International Pty Ltd, My Money Group

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Business Council of Aust calls for huge increase in immigration.

By Roz King


Australian Associated Press Financial News Wire

(c) !2002 AAP Information Services Pty Ltd. All rights reserved.


SYDNEY, March 5 AAP - Australia needs a dramatic increase in immigration to prevent the nation becoming irrelevant to the rest of the world, the Australian business community said today.


The Business Council of Australia (BCA) called on the federal government to set a population policy to bolster Australia's economic growth.


BCA president John Schubert said the Australian economy needed to grow at an average of four per cent a year - double that of many other developed countries - to stay one of the world's strongest economic nations.


But the target would not be met unless immigration was drastically stepped up and the Australian population increased, Dr Schubert told journalists in Sydney.


"We need to understand what is going to happen if we don't have a growing population," Dr Schubert said. If Australia did not meet the target, because of its geographic remoteness to the rest of the world, it would become "irrelevant", he said.


He said Australia needed to increase its immigration level by 50,000 people to about 140,000 people a year. In 10 years time there would need to be an extra 80,000 people to make up 170,000 immigrants a year.

He said the four per cent economic growth target would be required for the Australian economy to remain one of the largest in the world.


Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would need to be about three per cent and population growth about 1.25 per cent, he said. "We have to grow faster than our peers," he said. Most developed economies were growing around two to three per cent a year, he said. The Australian economy had averaged about 3.5 per cent over the past decade, he said. He called on the federal government to develop a population policy in order to meet the targets. However the federal government had refused to initiate a population policy, prompting a national conference on population last month, he said.


Dr Schubert said he hoped debate on the issue would move the government to action.

"If the debate is progressed, I think quite clearly the government will listen to that," he said.


He said there were a number of other reforms that needed to be made to meet the four per cent growth target. These included boosting the international renown of Australia's universities, increasing the completion rate of students to year 12 or equivalent, and efficient regulation of business under the Trade Practices Act.


The biggest barrier to these reforms was that the public was getting tired of change, Dr Schubert said.

But if the federal government refused to budge on its population stance, even more reforms would be required to meet the four per cent growth target, he said.


The BCA was meeting in Sydney for its annual strategy forum.

(c) 2002 AAP Information Services Pty Ltd

Copyright © 2000 Dow Jones & Company, Inc. All Rights Reserved.





Australians' attitudes to migration

Review - Institute of Public Affairs; Jolimont; Dec 2001; Bob Birrell;Katharine Betts;

Volume: 53  Issue: 4 Start Page: 3-5




A majority of Australians have favored a reduction in Australia's immigration program or no increase.

Through most of this period the largest group was those who wanted to see a reduction. The latest

opinion poll on the question shows that 41% think that the Australia is bringing in too many

immigrants, 44% think that the current numbers are about right and 10% think that the numbers are

too low. There are a variety of factors shaping this negative orientation. They include doubts about

the alleged economic benefits of immigration and, in some quarters, fears about the long-term

environmental implications of population expansion. Overriding these concerns are some much deeper

worries about how immigration is affecting Australia's social make-up and identity. It is these

concerns which make immigration such a hot issue in Australian politics.




Skills, location, population: Bringing them together

The Australian Economic Review; Parkville; Sep 2000; Martin Ferguson;

Volume: 33 Issue: 3  Start Page: 262-264


Australia needs a comprehensive population policy that embraces age structure, family policy,

regional development, skills and sustainability, as well as immigration.




Do selection criteria make a difference? Visa category and the labour market status of

immigrants to Australia

Economic Record; East Ivanhoe; Mar 2000; Deborah A Cobb-Clark;

Volume: 76  Issue: 232  Start Page: 15-31


This paper assesses the role of selection criteria in the immigrant settlement process. Do skill-based

immigrants have higher participation and employment rates than family-based immigrants? Does this

represent a head start or a persistent labor market advantage? The Longitudinal Survey of

Immigrants to Australia is used to address these questions. Generally, migrants selected for their

skills have better labor market outcomes. Over time, the relative gap in participation rates increases,

while the gap in employment rates decreases. Net of visa category, outcomes are better for native

English speakers and for those who visited Australia prior to migration.




A comparative static model of the relationship between immigration and the short-run

job prospects of unemployed residents

Economic Record; East Ivanhoe; Dec 1999; Bruce Chapman; Deborah Cobb-Clark;

Volume: 75  Issue: 231  Start Page: 358-368


A novel theoretical approach is developed to illustrate the consequences of immigration for the

probability that unemployed residents gain a job. Through the use of the vacancies to unemployment

ratio it is shown that immigration in theory can either increase or decrease unemployed residents'

employment probabilities, but that, contrary to populist rhetoric, an increase is more likely the more

recessed is the labor market. With reference to feasible Australian values of the parameters of

interest, it is demonstrated that in practically all circumstances immigration increases the overall

employment prospects of unemployed residents. Even so, the analysis is very short run, and strong

conclusions as to what might be happening over the longer-term are not appropriate.




Immigration, language and multiculturalism in Australia

The Australian Economic Review; Parkville; Dec 1999; Barry R Chiswick; Paul W Miller;

Volume: 32 Issue: 4 Start Page: 369-385



A unique survey on multiculturalism in Australia is used to explore attitudes toward immigration and

multiculturalism. The ethnic backgrounds of immigrants are shown not to matter as long as

immigrants are perceived as wanting to become Australian, rather than remaining apart.

Australians support government programs to assist the adjustment process, but oppose

programs that encourage distinct language and cultural maintenance or foster linguistic/ethnic

concentrations. The apprehension that Australians have toward multiculturalism is that they

see it as a mechanism for separate cultural preservation. Linguistic enclaves are shown to

reduce the acquisition of English language skills among immigrants, whereas positive attitudes

among immigrants towards Australia are associated with greater proficiency in speaking,

reading and writing English.




 Immigration policy and immigrant quality: The Australian points system

The American Economic Review; Nashville; May 1999; Paul W Miller;

Volume: 89 Issue: 2 Start Page: 192-197



Australia's immigration policy and immigrant quality are examined. The points systems used in

a number of the components of the immigration program in Australia offer a means of selecting

immigrants who will adjust rapidly to the circumstances of the Australian labor market and

bring benefit to Australia. The analyses reported show that the tests related to employability

are useful screens. It appears that, as immigrants are selected for entry on the basis of

observable characteristics of the type generally included in empirical analysis of immigrant

labor market performance, the absence of information on migration category other than

refugee in the data sets generally used for analysis of immigrants' labor market outcomes is

unlikely to be a major shortcoming.




Immigration and the Australian macroeconomy: Perspective and prospective

The Australian Economic Review; Parkville; Dec 1998; P N Junankar; David Pope; Glenn Withers;

Volume:31 Issue: 4 Start Page: 435-444



It is proposed that major lessons be distilled from the Australian experience and knowledge, and their

relevance for the longer term future is judged. The focus is on macrocosmic effects of international

migration, the evidence used is Australian and the conclusions are drawn especially form work in

which the authors themselves have been involved. No attempt is made to provide a comprehensive

survey, as other excellent recent sources for this exist. Distribution and structural issues are not

given more than passing attention.



Immigration and unemployment: The economic evidence

IPA Review; Melbourne; Mar 1997; John Freebairn;

Volume: 49 Issue: 3 Start Page: 19-20



There is a large body of detailed evidence which shows that changes in the level of net migration

have had a negligible effect on the overall rate of unemployment. On the one hand, immigration

adds new workers and a new supply of goods and services. On the other hand, immigrants also

add demand for goods and services, thus leading to the creation of new jobs. Different sets of

analysts have used different models to assess the effects of different levels of immigration on

a range of measures of economic performance. Results from the different models find that

immigration adds about the same to demand for employment as it does to the supply of




Some facts about migration

IPA Review; Melbourne; Mar 1997; Tess Rod;

Volume:  49 Issue: 3 Start Page: 14-15




Australia has the highest proportion of overseas-born residents in its population. This suggests that,

over the last generation, Australia has had the highest immigration rate among the four countries

with permanent immigration programs. Since World War II, settler arrivals have exceeded

permanent departures from Australia.




Cultural shifts : immigrants 'talk' on recent policies. [Paper presented at The Diversity Conference: National Conference on Reconciliation, Multiculturalism, Immigration and Human Rights, University of Technology (2000: Sydney)]

Wong-Loong; Pan-Henry

Everyday Diversity: Australian Multiculturalism and Reconciliation in Practice, (2001) : 161-177



Boat people and public opinion in Australia


People and Place, v.9, no.4, 2001 : 34-48



Immigrant labour in Australia : the regulatory framework.

O'Donnell-Anthony; Mitchell-Richard

Australian Journal of Labour Law, v.14, no.3, Dec 2001 : 269-305



The attacks on multiculturalism and immigration policy : can we reverse the trend? [Paper presented at The Diversity Conference: National Conference on Reconciliation, Multiculturalism, Immigration and Human Rights (2000: University of Technology, Sydney)]


Reconciliation, Multiculturalism, Identities: Difficult Dialogue, Sensible Solutions, (2001) : 47-75



Migrants, refugees and multiculturalism : the curious ambivalence of Australia's immigration policy. [Alfred Deakin Lecture, Melbourne, 2001]


Ideas for the Future of a Civil Society, (2001) : (124)-145



[Collection of two articles on rational immigration policy] [Stelzer's article, Immigration Policy for an Age of Mass Movement, is an edited version of a speech delivered to the Institute of Economic Affairs in London, 2001.]

Stelzer-Irwin-M; Soon-Jason

Policy (St Leonards, NSW), v.17, no.4, Summer 2001-2002 : 3-16




The 2001-2002 migration programme [Address to The Sydney Institute on Wednesday 16 May 2001.]


Sydney Papers, v.13, no.3, Winter 2001 : 16-23





From Fraser to Howard : behind the shift in policy toward 'boat people'


Green Left Weekly, no.471, 14 Nov 2001 : 13



Exclusionary nationalism


Best Australian Essays, 2001 : 54-62



The national mix


Best Australian Essays, 2001 : 147-160




Current immigration issues


Rantau, no.2, Sept 2001 : 7-9





Immigration - a battleground within the Australian Democrats


People and Place, v.9, no.3, 2001 : 10-17




Immigration on the rise : the 2001-2002 immigration program.


People and Place, v.9, no.2, 2001 : 21-28




Violence, domestic violence and immigration


Parity (Melbourne), v.14, no.2, Mar 2001 : 19-20




The Australian immigration program : politics, policy design and the case for reform. [Revised version of a paper originally presented to the workshop Immigration and Australia's Population in the 21st Century (1996: Australian National University, ACT)]


Politics of Immigration, (2001) : (165)-192



Migrants in the Australian labour market : some trends and developments.


People and Place, v.9, no.1, 2001 : 51-60




Australians all, let us get the number right [Four experts debate Australia's population problems and whether the Government's immigration policy is the right one for the times. Collection of four articles]

Paterson-Mark; Junankar-Raja; Hamilton-Clive; McDonald-Peter

Australian Financial Review, 23 Jan 2001 : 32-33





Population, migration, and refugee trends

Brown-Anne; Viviani-Nancy

International Relations in the New Century : an Australian Perspective, (2001) : 117-137




The business skills program : is it delivering?


People and Place, v.8, no.4, 2000 : 36-42




The place of immigration in population policy


BCA Papers, v.2, no.1, Apr 2000 : 34-37



Policy or perish [Population policy]


Bulletin (Sydney), 18 Jan 2000 : 28-30



Current immigration debate in Australia [Proceedings of the conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, and Turku, Finland, June 9-11, 1998]

Christie-M-F (Michael-Francis)

Scandinavian and European Migration to Australia and New Zealand: Proceedings, (1999) : 22-27



The business of migration : organised crime and illegal migration in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region


Adelaide Law Review, v.21, no.1, 1999 : (81)-114



Migration law and policy for the new millennium : building nation and community. [Paper in: New Voices for Social Democracy, editors Glenn Patmore and Dennis Glover]


Labor Essays, 1999-2000 : 254-271,312-333



Sustaining migration : immigration population policy and global questions for Australia. [Collection of two cases discussed at The Sydney Institute on 15 June 1999.]

Crock-Mary; O'Connor-Mark

Sydney Papers, v.11, no.3, Winter 1999 : 74-102





'We'll fight them on the beaches ...' : Australian immigration policy faces the new century


Meanjin (Melbourne), v.58, no.3, 1999 : 106-117



Making Australia home [How migration to Australia has changed over the last half century]


National Library of Australia News, v.9, no.11, Aug 1999 : 15-18



Information technology and Australia's immigration program : is Australia doing enough?


People and Place, v.8, no.2, 2000 : 77-83



Australian immigration in a 'dot com' world [Address to the Australian Industry Group. National Forum (2000: Canberra).]


Australian Economic Review, v.33, no.3, Sept 2000 : (257)- 261




Population issues and options : investing in people. [Address to the Australian Industry Group. National Forum (2000: Canberra).]


Australian Economic Review, v.33, no.3, Sept 2000 : (265)- 271






The shape of an Australian population policy


Australian Economic Review, v.33, no.3, Sept 2000 : (272)- 280




More 'relaxed and comfortable' : public opinion on immigration under Howard


People and Place, v.8, no.3, 2000 : 46-60





Position vacant [The skills crisis threatens as the biggest hurdle to the growth of IT in Australia]


MIS (Sydney, NSW : 1999), v.8, no.3, Apr 1999 : 32-34, 37




The Asianisation of Australia's immigration programme : diversity, preferences and contradictions


Australian Studies (London, England), v.13, no.1, Summer 1998 : (91)-115




Silencing the immigrant song : closed doors or open minds?


Future Tense: Australia in the 21st Century, (1999) : (163)-175




Immigration and the Australian macroeconomy : perspective and prospective

Junankar-P-N; Pope-David; Withers-Glenn

Australian Economic Review, v.31 no.4 Dec 1998 : (435)-444




Immigration, population and multiculturalism : the power of people.


CEDA Bulletin, Oct 1998 : 18, 20




Thomas Malthus and Australian thought : a population policy for Australia.


Australian Humanist, no.52 Spring 1998 : (1)-4




The 1998/ 99 immigration program

Birrell-Bob; Rapson-Virginia

People and Place, v.6 no.2 1998 : 24-36

Immigration-; Australia-: Social-policy




High skills, shattered hopes. [Professionals pay a high price to migrate to Australia]


Bulletin (Sydney), 26 May 1998 : 68-69




Bureaucratic politics and foreign policy.


In: Australian Foreign Policy: Into the New Millennium, (1997) : 33-52




Building Australia: the role of immigration. [In his speech to the John Stuart Mill Society, Parliament House, Canberra, 2 March 1998 the Liberal Member for Sturt (S. Aust) argues for an increase in migration despite public opinion being opposed to it]


Australian National Review, v.2, no.10, 1 Apr 1998 : 23-25